In 1302, at the expense of his father, he entered medical school at Lyon Military University. He was the only non-French student to enter the doctoral program at the university and continued to teach and research at the same university shortly after graduation. In 1311, before the establishment of the University of Tehran, he returned to Iran at the invitation of the Minister of Science and began teaching medicine as a professor at the Academy of Arts.
In those years, trachoma was so prevalent in the southern regions of Iran that Shushtar was called the city of Koran. After visiting these areas, Mohammad Gholi refused to return to France forever. His treatment for the disease was developed by Electrocoagulation in a detailed article in the 1950s.
Shams is the founder of Farabi Ophthalmology Hospital as the first specialized ophthalmology center in Iran. At the time of his death, he was the oldest member of the French Ophthalmological Society and was repeatedly elected president of various ophthalmological associations around the world. He is the founder of the Iranian Ophthalmological Association and a specialized journal of ophthalmology.
He died in 1375 at the age of 91, until the last days of his life. At the 12th National Congress of Iranian Ophthalmology, he was honored as a prominent professor and father of Iranian ophthalmology.